When non-toxic materials are exposed to the marine environment, marine organisms are likely to attach and reproduce on the surface. When it occurs on the surface of artificial facilities (such as ships, artificial marine structures), it will have an adverse effect on them This phenomenon is called "biofouling". Since humans have engaged in marine activities, marine biological fouling has always been a major problem restricting the development and utilization of marine resources. So far, more than 4,000 marine organisms fixed on the ship's hull are considered to be marine fouling organisms. The biofouling of ships will increase resistance and energy consumption during navigation; biofouling of man-made marine facilities It will make the equipment aging, wear out, and cause huge economic losses. According to statistics, the fuel consumption caused by marine pollution can increase by up to 40%, and the total cost of the voyage can increase by 77%. Some scientists estimate that the annual cost of the global ship antifouling and aesthetic crafts is about 700 million US dollars. In addition, after the organisms are colonized on the surface of the ship, they will be transported to all parts of the world as the ship sails. The removal of fouling organisms from the surface of the hull will seriously affect the local marine environment during the voyage. Studies have shown that the biofouling of ships has become an important cause of invading alien species in the sea. Therefore, the formation mechanism of marine biofouling and effective antifouling methods and related antifouling coatings have always been research hotspots. This article mainly introduces the principles and research progress of electrochemical methods, chemically active substance release methods and non-chemically active substances release methods, and prospects for the future development trend of antifouling coatings.
Irgarol 1051 is a potent antifouling agent known for its environmental pollution. It is an algaecide specially developed for marine antifouling coatings, which can specifically inhibit the photosynthesis of algae, thereby controlling the fouling of algae exposed on the ocean surface. Its water solubility is very low, so the leaching rate is slow, which extends the service life of this antifouling agent. It is generally believed that Cybutryne CAS 28159-98-0 is easier to degrade in seawater, and it has been reported that its half-life is 100-350 d, but its metabolite GS26575 has a longer degradation half-life of 80-200 d. However, it is difficult to degrade in sediments, with a half-life of more than 260 d, causing serious environmental pollution.