October 20th of each year is World Osteoporosis Day, but according to the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) data: osteoporosis fractures occur every 3 seconds in the world, 1/3 of women and 1 /5 men will experience a fracture after age 50, and 20% of hip fracture patients will die within 6 months after fracture.
The "Chinese Osteoporosis White Paper" pointed out that at least 70 million people in China suffer from osteoporosis, and another 210 million people have lower bone mass than normal standards, and there is a risk of osteoporosis. So how do we prevent it properly?
Three types of osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a systemic bone disease characterized by low bone mass, bone microstructural destruction, increased bone fragility, and prone to fracture. There are many reasons for osteoporosis. According to the predisposing factors, they are mainly divided into three categories:
Primary osteoporosis, especially in women after menopause, after men 50 years old, is often divided into two categories.
Postmenopausal osteoporosis in women
After menopause, the risk of osteoporosis is four times that of men. Postmenopausal ovarian function declines, the level of estrogen in the body is reduced, bone absorption is much faster than bone formation, bone mass is continuously lost, and the risk of osteoporosis is easily increased.
Degenerative osteoporosis in the elderly
Statistics show that the incidence of osteoporosis increased from 1% to 11% after 35 years of age, which is closely related to bone loss. The human body peaked at the age of 30 years old and was lost at a rate of 0.8% per year thereafter.
And as the age increases, the body's physiological functions deteriorate, metabolism slows down, and the body's own bone formation will decrease. The reduction of sex hormones, physiological decline of renal function, bone cortex and bone cancellous are affected, and osteoporosis is more likely to occur.
Secondary osteoporosis is primarily associated with certain diseases and drugs. Such as hyperthyroidism, diabetes, pituitary lesions and other endocrine diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, kidney disease, tumor lesions.
Long-term use of some immunosuppressants, glucocorticoids and other drugs may also increase the risk of osteoporosis.
Idiopathic osteoporosis can occur in young people, including adolescents, adult osteoporosis, pregnancy in women, and osteoporosis during lactation.
Three common "calcium mistakes"
First of all, it is clear that calcium is closely related to bone health. However, many people eat calcium tablets every day, and the condition is getting better. Some people even consciously add calcium tablets, and osteoporosis occurs. What is the reason? May be related to the following misunderstandings.
Myth 1: The elderly need calcium supplementation?
Although osteoporosis has a younger trend, middle-aged and older people are more high-risk, leading some people to think that calcium is needed only when they are older. actually not.
First of all, the growth and development of each person, including the fetus during pregnancy, is inseparable from calcium. In general, the calcium intake of adolescents is not less than 1000mg/day, but its calcium absorption capacity is better. It is recommended to obtain more from the diet. If it affects development, it can be supplemented with calcium.
Secondly, human bone mass is like depositing pension funds, which is the potential for accumulation in the future. By the age of 30, the bone mass of the human body will reach its peak, and then it will not decrease. When the peak bone mass is stored, the time for osteoporosis is relatively later and the degree is lighter.
What's more, when you are old, osteoporosis and calcium supplementation, the body's absorption capacity is not as good as before, the effect is very limited. Therefore, there is no age limit for calcium supplementation, but it is necessary to store bones from a young age.
Myth 2: Eating calcium tablets can prevent osteoporosis?
Calcium is the main component of bone formation, but osteoporosis is not due to simple calcium deficiency, mostly due to imbalance of calcium regulation mechanism. Therefore, only calcium supplementation is not enough, but also promote bone formation and prevent bone loss.
Collagen - anti-loss
80% of the organic matter in the bone is collagen. It is the framework that makes up the bone and is an essential element in preventing osteoporosis.
Collagen not only improves bone toughness, but also firmly fixes calcium, minerals and various trace elements in the skeletal cavity, improves absorption and utilization, thereby improving bone growth and regeneration, and effectively preventing osteoporosis.
Usually, you can eat foods containing collagen, such as fish skin, pig skin, chicken feet, etc., but these foods have higher fat content and should not be eaten.
In addition, high-quality sleep can also help promote the proliferation of human collagen.
Vitamin D - promote absorption
Vitamin D locks calcium in the bones, prevents calcium loss, and promotes the body's absorption of calcium into the bones.
Usually, you can eat more plant foods such as mushrooms and yeast, as well as deep-sea fish. In addition, sun exposure is also a way to supplement vitamin D. It is recommended to take the sun twice a week for about 20 minutes.
Magnesium - help operation
Magnesium is also an important component of human bones, affecting the metabolism of bone matrix and bone minerals, as well as the "channel" of calcium ion cells inside and outside, which can strengthen the bones to retain more calcium.
Daily consumption of spinach, mustard, brown rice, wheat, bananas, etc. can be supplemented with magnesium.
Misunderstanding 3: Calcium tablets eat much, calcium will make up much more?
Even if it is a "calcium tablet", it is different and cannot be measured by a simple "dosage".
Inorganic calcium: mainly includes calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, etc., generally solid calcium. They are characterized by relatively high calcium content, good absorption rate and low price.
Organic calcium: such as calcium lactate, calcium gluconate, etc., generally liquid calcium. It is characterized by good solubility and good taste, but relatively low calcium content.
Moreover, the calcium supplement has to take into account the body's own absorption, not to say how much it can be added if it is eaten. Therefore, while supplementing the calcium agent, it is possible to pay attention to the combination of nutrients and promote the better absorption and utilization of calcium.
Regarding drugs, Ethyl Trans-4-oxobutenoate is one of the main drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis.