Introduction To Epilepsy

- Sep 07, 2019-

Important fact

Epilepsy is a chronic, non-communicable disease of the brain that affects people of all ages.

There are approximately 50 million people with epilepsy worldwide, making it one of the most common neurological diseases worldwide.

Nearly 80% of people with epilepsy live in low- and middle-income countries.

Up to 70% of patients with epilepsy are estimated to have no seizures if properly diagnosed and treated.

Compared with the general population, patients with epilepsy have a three-fold higher risk of premature death.

In low-income countries, three-quarters of people with epilepsy do not receive the treatment they need.

In many parts of the world, people with epilepsy and their families are stigmatized and discriminated against.

Epilepsy is a chronic, non-communicable disease of the brain that affects approximately 50 million people worldwide. The disease is characterized by recurrent attacks. In the event of a seizure, a temporary involuntary convulsion (ie, a partial seizure or a systemic episode) in a part of the body or the entire body, sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness and incontinence.

Seizures are caused by a abnormal discharge of a group of brain cells. Different parts of the brain may become sites of abnormal discharge. Attacks range from very short-lived loss of consciousness or muscle reflexes to severe and persistent convulsions. The frequency of seizures can vary, from less than one episode per year to several episodes per day. 5,5-Dimethyloxazolidine-2,4-dione CAS 695-53-4 is one of the main raw materials for the production of anti-epileptic drugs.

5,5-Dimethyloxazolidine-2,4-dione CAS 695-53-4 suppliers said that an episode does not mean epilepsy (up to 10% of people in the world have an episode in their lifetime). Epilepsy refers to an unprovoked episode of two or more episodes. Epilepsy is one of the earliest confirmed conditions in the world, with written records dating back to 4000 BC. For centuries, people have fear, misunderstanding, discrimination and regard it as a social shame. The disease is notorious today in many countries, affecting the quality of life of patients and their families.

Symptoms and signs

5,5-Dimethyloxazolidine-2,4-dione maufacturers said that the characteristics of seizures vary, depending on the location of the first occurrence of the disorder in the brain and the extent of this disorder. There may be transient symptoms such as loss of consciousness or perception, as well as disturbances in exercise, sensation (including visual, auditory and gustatory), mood or other cognitive functions.

People with epilepsy often have more physical problems (such as fractures and abrasions related to seizures) and higher proportions of mental disorders, including anxiety and depression. Similarly, epilepsy can triple the risk of premature death compared to the general population, with the highest premature mortality rates in low- and middle-income countries and rural areas.

Dimethadione manufacturers that us that A large proportion of the causes of epilepsy-related deaths are preventable, such as falls, drowning, burns, and prolonged attacks, especially in low- and middle-income countries.

Incidence rate

Epilepsy accounts for a high proportion of the world's disease burden, affecting about 50 million people worldwide. At a given time, the proportion of active people with active epilepsy (ie, persistent episodes or need for treatment) is estimated to be 4 to 10 per 1,000 people.

It is estimated that 5 million people worldwide are diagnosed with epilepsy each year. In high-income countries, it is estimated that 49 out of every 100,000 people are diagnosed with epilepsy. In low- and middle-income countries, this figure could be as high as 139 per 100,000.

This may be due to increased risk of epidemics, such as malaria or neurocysticercosis; higher rates of road traffic injuries; birth-related injuries; changes in medical infrastructure; and the availability and accessibility of preventive health programmes. Nearly 80% of people with epilepsy live in low- and middle-income countries.

Cause

Epilepsy is not contagious. Although many underlying disease mechanisms may cause epilepsy, the cause of the disease remains unknown in about 50% of patients worldwide. The causes of epilepsy fall into the following categories: structural, hereditary, infectious, metabolic, immunological, and unknown causes. E.g:

Brain damage caused by prenatal or perinatal period (eg hypoxia or trauma during production, low birth weight);

Related brain malformations caused by congenital abnormalities or genetic disorders;

The head was seriously injured;

a stroke that limits the amount of oxygen in the brain;

Brain infections such as meningitis, encephalitis, and cerebral cysticercosis;

Certain genetic syndromes;

Brain tumors.

treatment

Seizures can be controlled. Up to 70% of patients with epilepsy can achieve zero seizures by appropriate use of anti-epileptic drugs. There are already low-cost treatments that take daily medication and cost only $5 a year. Anti-epileptic drugs can be discontinued after two years without seizures, and relevant clinical, social, and personal factors should be considered. The onset of the episode and abnormal EEG are the two most robust factors predicting recurrence of epilepsy.

In low-income countries, about three-quarters of people with epilepsy may not get the treatment they need. This is the so-called "treatment gap."

In many low- and middle-income countries, anti-epileptic drugs are not readily available. A recent study found that the average proportion of universal anti-epilepsy provided by the public sector in low- and middle-income countries was less than 50%. This can be a barrier to treatment.

It is possible to diagnose and treat most patients with epilepsy at the primary health care level without sophisticated equipment.

The WHO pilot project shows that training primary health care providers to diagnose and treat epilepsy can effectively reduce the gap in epilepsy treatment.

Surgery may be beneficial in patients who respond poorly to medication.

prevention

It is estimated that 25% of epilepsy cases can be prevented.

Preventing head injuries is the most effective way to prevent post-traumatic epilepsy.

Taking appropriate perinatal care can reduce new epileptic seizures caused by childbirth injuries.

Use of drugs or other methods to reduce body temperature in children with fever can reduce febrile seizures.

Stroke-related epilepsy prevention efforts focus on reducing cardiovascular risk factors such as taking measures to prevent or control high blood pressure, diabetes and obesity, as well as avoiding smoking and excessive drinking.

Eliminating parasites in the environment and carrying out mission activities on how to avoid infections is an effective way to reduce epilepsy caused by factors such as cerebral cysticercosis worldwide.

Social and economic impact

Epilepsy accounts for 0.5% of the global disease burden. The global burden of disease is a measure of time, using a combination of years of life lost due to early death and life in incomplete health. Epilepsy has a major economic impact on health care needs, premature death, and loss of work productivity.

The economic impact of epilepsy varies significantly depending on the duration and severity of the disease, the response to treatment, and the health care environment. Personal payments and lost productivity put a heavy burden on families. An economic study from India estimated that public financing practices for first- and second-line therapy and other medical costs have reduced the economic burden of epilepsy and are cost-effective (1).

The social impact of the disease varies from country to country, but stigma and discrimination against epilepsy around the world are often more difficult to remove than seizures themselves. People with epilepsy can be victims of prejudice. The stigma of the disease may prevent people from seeking medical treatment because they do not want people to know that they have the disease.

human rights

People with epilepsy may have difficulty accessing educational opportunities, losing access to a driver's license, facing barriers to specific career employment, and having difficulty obtaining health and life insurance. Legislation in many countries reflects the misunderstanding of epilepsy for centuries. E.g:

In China and India, epilepsy is often seen as a reason for prohibiting marriage or invalid marriage.

In the United Kingdom, it was not until 1971 that a law prohibiting the marriage of people with epilepsy was abolished.

In the United States, until the 1970s, people with epilepsy were legally prohibited from entering restaurants, theaters, entertainment centers, and other public buildings.

Legislation based on internationally recognized human rights standards can prevent discrimination and human rights violations, improve health care services and improve the quality of life of people with epilepsy.

WHO response

WHO and its partners recognize that epilepsy is a major public health concern. WHO, the International Anti-Epilepsy Alliance and the International Epilepsy Society have led the “Escape from Shadows” global anti-epileptic campaign to provide better information, raise awareness of epilepsy, and strengthen public and private efforts to improve treatment and Reduce the impact of the disease.

These efforts have led to the inclusion of epilepsy as a priority in a number of countries, and regional declarations have been issued in all six WHO regions. The Americas region approved the epilepsy strategy and action plan in 2011, and the 2015 World Health Assembly adopted a resolution on global epilepsy burden (WHA68.20). The resolution urges Member States to take coordinated action on epilepsy and its consequences.

Projects have been implemented in many countries to reduce treatment gaps and morbidity in patients with epilepsy, train and train health professionals, eliminate stigma associated with the disease, identify possible prevention strategies, and seek to integrate epilepsy into local health systems . These projects combine several innovative strategies to demonstrate a simple, cost-effective approach to treating epilepsy in resource-poor settings.

WHO's plan to narrow the epilepsy treatment gap and reduce the mental health gap action plan is intended to achieve these goals in Ghana, Mozambique, Myanmar and Viet Nam. The focus of these projects is to expand the skills of primary and non-specialist health care providers at the community level to diagnose, treat and follow up on patients with epilepsy. These four pilot projects have significantly improved accessibility, enabling 6.5 million people to get epilepsy treatment when needed.