The microecological preparation is a live bacterial preparation made by using a beneficial bacteria which constitutes a normal flora in an animal, and is called a probiotic. It has the functions of assisting digestion, synthesizing essential vitamins of animals, diagnosing pathogenic microorganisms, and stimulating the normal development of the immune system, thereby promoting The purpose of animal growth. These bacteria include many lactic acid bacteria members of the genus Lactobacillus and Streptococcus, which can fully utilize the living bacteria to adhere and multiply in the body, without any pollution to the environment, improve feed utilization, improve the quality of animal products, reduce the content of fecal ammonia, and purify Water environment.
However, most of the live bacterial preparations are anaerobic bacteria, which is difficult to ferment. In the process of storage and transportation, oxygen and high temperature are all inactivated. They should not be combined with antibiotics and may be inactivated by gastric acid. The quality standard needs to be unified .
Enzyme preparations include various hydrolases (digestive enzymes) such as amylase, protease, glucanase, pectinase, hemicellulase, cellulase, glucose oxidase, lysozyme, phytase (for single stomach) Animals), xylanase, cytosolic enzymes, and isomerases . The enzyme preparation can supplement the deficiency of the enzyme in the body and decompose the anti-nutritional factors in the feed, but the effect is specific. Usually, the application effect of the composite enzyme is better than that of the single enzyme.
Since the enzyme is easily inactivated in the process of feed processing, preservation, etc., it is necessary to adopt a site-directed mutagenesis technique or a specific dosage form to specifically protect the enzyme activity. At present, it is necessary to standardize the enzyme activity index and its determination method.
Natural plant extract
Due to its special physiological structure, Yucca extract has strong adsorption capacity for harmful gases, which can reduce the concentration of harmful gases such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in livestock houses, improve animal feeding environment, improve health and improve animal performance. Therefore, it has been extensively studied and applied to animal production. In addition, the inhibition of intestinal protozoa by yucca saponins affects the phagocytosis of protozoa to bacteria, which increases the number of fiber-decomposing bacteria in the intestine, and contributes to the fermentation and degradation of cellulose in the latter part of the digestive tract.
According to Chinese applied pharmacology, yucca saponin has a broad-spectrum antibacterial effect against hemolytic Staphylococcus aureus, hemolytic streptococcus, pneumococci, dysentery bacillus, typhoid bacillus, paratyphoid bacillus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli Proteobacter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, B. pertussis and their common pathogenic skin fungi have strong inhibition.
Yucca saponin can enhance the immune response by increasing the intestinal mucosa's antigen uptake, and can also form a complex with the antigen to avoid digestion and degradation of the antigen.
Different types of feed additives have their own advantages and disadvantages. In the process of phasing out antibiotic additives, new additives that are natural, non-toxic, safe to humans and animals, and environmentally friendly should be targeted. The microecological preparation consists of viable bacteria that can be propagated, and should be developed in the direction of resistant to gastric acid, high temperature, digestive enzymes, colonic colonization, and complex. Enzyme preparations are the safest, but there is a need to address the general problem of increasing and protecting enzyme activity. Low molecular weight saccharides represented by fructooligosaccharides, xylooligosaccharides and chitosan have the function of promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria in the intestine, but in the long run, it is necessary to strengthen the source of abundant and selectively promote the growth of probiotics. Research work on the screening of low molecular weight sugars that multiply, reduce fat absorption, and effectively stimulate mucosal immunity. O-Phosphorylethanolamine is also a new feed additive for a variety of animals.