Water-soluble fertilizer refers to a compound fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, trace elements, amino acids, humic acid, alginic acid and the like which can be completely dissolved in water. There are two types of solid water soluble fertilizer and liquid water soluble fertilizer. From the nutrient content, there are a large number of elements of water-soluble fertilizer, medium-quantity water-soluble fertilizer, trace element water-soluble fertilizer, amino acid-soluble fertilizer, humic acid-containing water-soluble fertilizer, organic water-soluble fertilizer, etc.
Compared with traditional superphosphate, granulated compound fertilizer and other varieties, water-soluble fertilizer has obvious advantages. It is a quick-acting fertilizer with good water solubility and no residue. It can be completely dissolved in water and can be directly absorbed and utilized by the roots and leaves of crops. Water-soluble fertilizer is combined with micro-sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation in facility agriculture to achieve the integration of water and fertilizer with water and fertilizer, and achieve the efficiency of water saving and fertilizer saving. In today's increasingly shortage of water resources, the application of water-soluble fertilizer has become one of the measures to increase agricultural efficiency and increase farmers' income.
This article introduces 10 technical points for the application of water-soluble fertilizers:
1. Avoid direct application
It is necessary to adopt a second dilution of water to dissolve the fertilizer. The nutrient content of the compound fertilizer is higher than that of the general compound fertilizer, and the amount of the fertilizer is relatively small. The direct application of the fertilizer directly causes the roots of the seedlings to be damaged, and the seedlings and seedlings are weak. The second dilution is not only beneficial to the uniform application of the fertilizer, but also can improve the fertilizer. Utilization rate.
2, a small number of multiple applications
Because of the quick-acting effect of water-soluble fertilizer, it is difficult to remain in the soil for a long time. A small amount is the most important fertilization principle, which is consistent with the characteristics of uninterrupted nutrient absorption by plant roots, and reduces the leaching loss caused by one-time large-scale fertilization. Generally, the dosage per acre is 3-6 kg.
3, pay attention to nutrient balance
The water-soluble fertilizer is generally applied by pouring or spraying, or mixed into water, and applied with irrigation (drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation). It should be reminded that when using drip irrigation, due to the dense growth and large amount of crop roots, the dependence on soil nutrient supply is reduced, and more depends on the nutrients provided by drip irrigation. If the water soluble fertilizer formula is not balanced, it will affect crop growth. In addition, water-soluble fertilizer should not be applied with traditional irrigation methods such as flood irrigation or irrigation, to avoid fertilizer waste and uneven application.
4, with application
Water-soluble fertilizer is a quick-acting fertilizer, which can only be used as a top dressing. Especially in conventional agricultural production, water-soluble fertilizer is not a substitute for other conventional fertilizers. It is necessary to combine the basic fertilizer with the topdressing fertilizer, the combination of organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer, and the combination of water-soluble fertilizer and conventional fertilizer in order to reduce the cost and exert the advantages of various fertilizers.
5, try to use alone or mixed with non-alkaline pesticides
When vegetables are deficient in deficiency or root growth is poor, many farmers use water-soluble fertilizers to alleviate them. It is reminded that the water-soluble fertilizer should be applied as much as possible or mixed with non-alkaline pesticides, so as to prevent the metal ions from reacting and causing precipitation, resulting in leaf damage or phytotoxicity.
6, avoid excessive irrigation
When the main purpose of fertilization is to irrigate, the depth of the root layer can be wetted. Different crop root depths vary widely, and the soil can be excavated at any time to understand the specific depth of the root layer. Excessive irrigation not only wastes water, but also causes nutrients to leap below the root layer, crops cannot be absorbed, and fertilizer is wasted. In particular, urea and nitrate nitrogen fertilizers in water-soluble fertilizers (such as potassium nitrate, calcium ammonium nitrate, nitrophosphate, and water-soluble fertilizers containing nitrate nitrogen) are easily lost with water.
7, to prevent the accumulation of salt on the surface
Long-term use of drip fertigation in greenhouses or greenhouses will cause accumulation of surface salt and affect root growth. Under-film drip irrigation can be used to inhibit salt migration to the surface layer.
8, crop-specific formula
The water-soluble fertilizer is well-known throughout the development of the fertilizer industry. The fierce competition has prompted manufacturers to develop new products and provide perfect fertilization programs. The selectivity of the growers will increase if the trees are used for fruit trees. The special fertilizer for vegetables and vegetables, and the specific targeted fertilization also effectively avoid problems in the fertilization process.
9, fertilize according to soil nutrients
In recent years, soil testing and formula fertilization is more popular, which means that by measuring the nutrients lacked by the soil for rational fertilization, to ensure that the soil nutrient balance does not appear to be de-fertilized, then the first measurement and then effective selection of different levels of water-soluble fertilizer formula is naturally more than blind fertilization. Better, each nutrient element promotes absorption and prevents antagonism.
10, water quality and dilution factor calculation
Water-soluble fertilizer is divided into powder and liquid. No matter which kind of water is needed before use, the concentration of the fertilizer should be diluted. Do not use some dirty water or water with a lot of floating matter and impurities, because if drip irrigation and spraying are used It is easy to block the dripper and the nozzle to affect the working efficiency. It is better to use tap water to quickly promote the dissolution of the fertilizer.